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Urban Fog of Belgrade

  • a virtual collection of inventive undecidedness in the pursuit of new urban identity at the turn of 21st century

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  • artwork by (alphabetically): Bas Princen, photographer/Rotterdam; Bojan Boric, Jelena Mijanovic with Mikser (Igor Stoimenov, Maja Vidakovic), Stockholm/Belgrade; Branislav Dimitrijevic, writer/curator/Museum of Contemporary Arts/Belgrade; skart (Dragan Protic & Djordje Balmazovic), artists/Belgrade; NORMAL Group for Architecture [1998-2003], New York; Ivan Kucina, architect, Belgrade; Mihael Milunovic, artist/Paris/Belgrade; Milorad Mladenovic, artist/Belgrade; Nataša Teofilovic, artist/architect/Belgrade; architect ; STEALTH Group, architects, Rotterdam/Belgrade; Stevan Vukovic, writer/curator/Belgrade & Srdjan Jovanovic Weiss, architect, New York.

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  • initiator of the collection: Srdjan Jovanovic Weiss 

  • curatorial advisers: Katherine Carl, Stevan Vuković.

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  • the curators' statement: 

  • This gathering of works presents the current array of undecidedness in Belgrade’s pursuit of its new identity. The city is seen here as a group of actors without a script. After half a century of Tito's liberal communism, then Milošević's introverted nationalism, then open popular revolt and desire to re-join the World, these pieces show a complex ambition towards a 'dream' of definite positioning of Belgrade in the face of current North Atlantic associations. The complexity of its diverse population and history is now looked at as a burden, as a complication in the process of European integration. UFO Belgrade exposes an array of personal and collective analysis of the ambitions and desires for the city to be reinvented. However, this reinvention is not readily at hand, rather it seems interminably postponed. The results of different questions raised by these art and architectural works are analogous to fog: hanging in the air seemingly forever, but visible only under certain light, often when no one is around. The blur of any possible clear vision, and here we mean a vision for a clear future of the city, appears simply as a number of fuzzy, un-coordinated attempts. The beauty of this blowzy process does not lie in re-reading the past, but in figuring the present, which again stands in on the urban stage for the desired future which should have been now. 

  • UFO Belgrade takes this fog of undecidedness of the city further, uncovering a new kind of beauty which appears freed from all preconceptions about average urban life, appropriate history and suitable ideology. 

  • Any desire to redefine the city as a whole always raises the unexpected possibility of encountering its opposite or something askew. It feels like the difference between a large field where people go with the hope of seeing a spectacle and the backyard where a UFO could fall unnoticed. This may happen near an illegally built house at the outskirts of the city. The smashed, but survived high-tech craft which fell among half-built brick houses is baffling. If one wants to interact with this 'extra-terrestrial' condition one has to forget the ethical world and consider an alternative to those beautiful movies in which UFOs always land in Northern America. In reality the UFO may very well fall in a favela or in some other self-reliant chaos of "urban dilapidation." Now dealing with the alien, the city confronts the question of what to do next: to try to 'sell' the stranger or to keep its broken shell as the mythic memory of an encounter.

  • The UFO is not a matter of the enlightenment. Inside the UFO, whether anything is left or right, progressive or conservative, radical or moderate, community-oriented or individualist, secular or religious, positioned against or for the system... is never quite clear. Being inside the fog, divorced from the outside, there is no distance from which to assemble a view but rather the ‘fog’ of activities devoid of classification becomes the very agent of social activity. Light can cut through darkness but not through the fog. Here classical western notions of enlightenment do not appear to work. The fog is a kind of a surplus, very material indeed...where things and cities can also disappear.

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  • the collection contains artwork by:

Bas Princen

  • Bas Princen is a photographer from Holland  living and working in Rotterdam. He has exhibited in various group shows about the contemporary city including "Belgrade-Den Haag" at The Stroom gallery in The Hague. His most recent solo-exhibition was in NAI - The Netherlands's Architecture Institute in March 2003.

  • [past links: http://www.archined.nl/archined/2415.html ]

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  • title: Belgrade 60-90 

  • This series of photographs is calm visual evidence of the parts of Belgrade built during the two most intense periods of construction: during the '60s and during the '90s. They show the city as an extreme result of planning after the Second World War and un-planning during the recent Milošević era. Though different in density, typology, ideology and esthetics, these two poles have something in common: a harsh reality and truly extreme means of becoming a city. These views point to a mounting difference between Belgrade and the West, where Princen comes from. Belgrade here looks as if it was made without any discussion, any debate or any idea of its raw and brutal maintenance. Princen's lens give this harshness the calm view of an observer and a 'softness' that they are missing in actuality. They point to an inverted nature of the city as a configuration of many ugly buildings collected to create a density that makes the city beautiful, or on the other hand, the city which is a collection of potentially beautiful individual buildings, crammed together in an unlikely and brutal manner.

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  • image title: Belgrade in the 90'

  • photo copyright: Bas Princen

Bojan Boric, Jelena Mijanovic with Mikser (Igor Stoimenov, Maja Vidakovic) 

  • After being engaged in numerous socially aware projects in the field of urban design, journalism, documentary film, art, etc., the four authors joined their studios in a series of collaborative projects with the aim to explore urban phenomena that have been neglected by mainstream media and organizations. Their diverse professional and academic backgrounds offer a variety of insights, as well as modes of expression.

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  • title: Parallel Urbanity 

  • Parallel Urbanity deals with the recent contrasting realities of Belgrade. The transformation of Belgrade during the past ten years was characterized by the emergence of parallel urban systems and the development of various coping mechanisms - physical and psychological. These elements were the most vital forces that maintained life in the city. As a city with contradictions, at once global and isolated, prosperous and devastated, Belgrade maintained many qualities of a world metropolis. Through life-size projections of urban images and sounds, the installation engages the observer both physically and psychologically with the conflicting realities of Belgrade. The project explores the post-war condition of a city where the boundary between legal and illegal activity has been blurred. Actions preceded law and law adjusted to actions. It is through this flexibility that life was possible in Belgrade. Daily struggle to survive produced new environments characterized by spontaneous transformations of the city. This spontaneous urbanism was reinforced by the instability of government agencies, and their inability to cope with problems facing the city. Survival at the micro level, dependent on an effort of an individual, conditioned the urban development on every level. “Parallel Urbanity” is defined by systems of parasitic environments which are the result of the dialectic between parallel systems of survival and the underlying infrastructure of Belgrade. This relationship is both symbiotic and antagonistic. The three-dimensional setting of the two video tracks challenges the linear methods of documenting complex urban phenomena. 

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  • piece: Video Installation

  • Installation elements: 1. Two parallel video projections (A and B) showing contrasting realities in Belgrade. a. The projected / idealistic/ propagandistic image of Belgrade at the macro level; b. The spontaneous mechanisms of survival through urban flexibility at the micro level (the individual); 2. Sound: the sound will travel  between the four speakers. It will correspond to either projection  A or B at a time and create moments of tension between the contradicting realities of Belgrade. Two suspended parallel projection screens (translucent fabric), dimensions 4X3 m. / Two digital or VHS video players / Two video projectors / Four loudspeakers (2 per each screen / video player)  

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  • image title: views of Parallel Urbanity - Belgrade  installation at Buell Hall Gallery, Columbia University, New York

  • photo: courtesy of the artists

Branislav Dimitrijevic 

  • is an art historian, art-writer and curator working at the Museum for Contemporary Arts in Belgrade. He teaches Art History and Theory of Contemporary Culture in an Art School in Belgrade. With Branislava Andjelkovic and Branimir Stojanovic he founded in 1999 the School for History and Theory of Images, an independent educational project coordinated by the Centre for Contemporary Art. He published numerous essays on contemporary art and theory of art, film and visual culture. He edited the book POP VISION (1996) as well as a number of exhibition catalogues. Mostly with Branislava Andjelkovic he curated contemporary art exhibitions including Map Room (1995), Murder1 (1997), Overground (1998), and most recently Konverzacija (2001), as well as individual artists' shows.
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  • title: Star City
  • Two writings by Branislav Dimitrijevic address two seemingly opposite phenomena in Belgrade, however increasingly inter-dependent and inter-mingled: the wishful stardom of the Belgrade artist and the actual stardom of a Turbo-folk diva. The sensational manner in which a suddenly desirable artist from the Balkans is written about and the sensational destiny of the folk-singer Svetlana Raznatovic - Ceca resonate together and bring to the surface deep roots of cultural behaviorism in Belgrade. The anonymous artist is shown in a glamorous, glossy fashion according to Western expectations of how a Serbian artist should look, and the gloss surrounding the Turbo star, who is detested among the intellectual elite, is at the height of mass urban culture. Both of these presentations reveal Belgrade's grand undecidedness about its identity, a sudden consciousness about the ferocious powers of popularity, and a city as the culture of grand misperceptions that came to identify its transformational realms as the core of its transitional character.     
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  • view of the installation:
  • copyright: courtesy of Transformers Gallery, Urban Drift, Berlin

grupa skart

  • SKART is an art action group founded in 1990 by Dragan Protic and Dordje Balmazovic. SKART has become one of Europe’s most well-known art action groups and has won various awards (Silver Medal at World Exhibition of Intentions: Eureka, Brussels in 1993). The group participates in exhibitions with installations and concepts. Sight, sound and surprise are their tools. SKART has mounted more than 10 solo exhibitions and participated in group-art events all over the world. SKART also produces graphic design for several theatre festivals, art events and radio. As visual artists and experimental graphic designers with a strong attachment to community-based work, they have initiated and participated in many collaborative projects related to particular uncertain and traumatic social issues; very often the street is the medium in which they act. 
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  • title: Hello/I love you/Bye-bye
  • Hello/I love you/Bye-bye is a triptych about the meaning of the fast exchange of memory, emotions and life in the transforming city compressed into a single thing like a child's toy. Inspired by a found object in a friend's apartment - a toy in the form of a telephone that has only three call buttons for three different sound options - Grupa Skart printed an edition of three posters to be displayed in private or public space. By pressing a button on the telephone toy, one is greeted by a voice saying: Hello, I Love you and Bye-Bye according to the button selected. Skart related each of the three posters in the triptych to each of the voices by thematically reproducing photographs of women from three different post-war decades set in three different social situations. The first poster (Hello) shows a group of women from the '50s enjoying themselves during a break from work. The second (I love you)  is an image from the '60s of a young girl playing with a toy in front of her family house, sitting among a thousand other toys. The third poster (Bye-bye) presents an image of a teenage girl during the '70s posing for a collective photograph traditionally taken at the end of the high-school final exams. However, because she was tutored privately and did not have class-mates, she stands alone in front of the forest with no classmates around her. Placed together in the triptych and combined with the original sounds from the telephone toy, the posters aim to confirm that cultural transformation can be found in an instant as a minimal, compressed memory contained in the form of a banal product. Apparently independent of the content that it carries, the toy can play a double role in the face of Belgrade's recent historical transformation: an everyday object that has been transformed from its original function (i.e. from a telephone to a toy) becomes a playful means of understanding the many changes in urban memory.
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  • image title: Hello/I Love You/Bye-bye triptych
  • photo: courtesy of the artists

Ivan Kucina

  • Ivan Kucina is an architect, lecturer, member of the Stealth Group and a key initiator of much of the current research into uncontrolled processes within the Belgrade city structure. He was born in Belgrade in 1961. In 1988 he graduated from the Faculty of Architecture, University of Belgrade. In 1992 he attended MA course in Morphology of Organized Space and Time, Faculty of Architecture, University of Belgrade. In 1998 he finalized his masters thesis on the research of the Phenomena of Transition in Modern Architecture with the Example of Belgrade Modern Architecture Between the Two World Wars. He has served since 1997 as a lecturer at the Faculty of Architecture, University of Belgrade. Currently, he is building a Family house for an acupuncture para-medic on Avala mountain near Belgrade and is leading an effort to create software called: Personal Housing Generator based on Belgrade urban experience during  the last decade.

  • past links: www.classic.archined.nl/wildcity  

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  • title: Dead City 

  • The Dead City workshop was realized through the course Architectural Design Theory at the Architectural Faculty, University of Belgrade from November 2000 to January 2001. The workshop product was an installation of a city composed of two hundred individual models developed through an experimental design procedure initiated by the music from the album "Dead City" by Future Sound of London. Following defined phases of work, students made a serial of transfers from music to drawing, from sketch to writing, from text to modeling, from sculpture to designing, to produce models of architectural buildings that all together could compose a city – a dead city – urban space without vital connections among its individual monuments.

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  • image title: view of Dead City installation

  • photos: courtesy of Transformers Gallery, Urban Drift, Berlin

Mihael Milunovic 

  • Mihael Milunovic is a visual artist working in different media from painting and sculpture to site specific installations and ambient settings. His current focus is on para-architectural constructions that are designed in a sculptural manner and built in the physical space of a gallery on the web and/or outdoors.  
  • link: www.remont.co.yu/mihael.htm
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  • title:Tout pour moi devient allegorie
  • This is the motto of a Baudellairean flaneur, treating every spatial/topographic structure, however random and uncontrolled its functioning may seem, as a territorialized system of signs, in the frame of which even the most ordinary and trivial phenomenon can be shown to be both saturated with meaning, and woven into a net of semantic fluxes, always potentially leading towards the realm of discourses which are different and unexpected. Here images of the 'wild' flea market in Belgrade, which was for a whole decade celebrated by the local artists as a heterotopic place, out of range of technologies of predictability and control, fully follow that motto. They focus on framing isolated fragments of the site, mainly groups of various objects found lying around, in an attempt to visually pinpoint some particular logic of contingent plurality as the structuring principle operating in a range of various cultural, economic, demographic, sociological, ecological and political contexts, from the micro to the macro level.
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  • image title: Selections from the 'Wild,' flee-market in Belgrade often celebrated as heterotopic places
  • copyright: Mihael Milunovic

Milorad Mladenovic 

  • is an artist from Belgrade working largely with the traces of ephemeral urban histories. Mladenovic's architectural education brings critical knowledge to the work that he transposes vis-a-vis the city.  
  • link: www.cyberrex.org/visualart/Eng/mladenovicm.htm 
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  • title: Whiteout City 
  • The project investigates points of intersection of the linguistic, the behavioral and the spatial aspects of the social production of meaning, playing with the dichotomy of visual absence / signifying presence, versus visual presence / signifying absence, in order to show certain cultural and sub-cultural structures in their performative role. The images present sites of spontaneous popular inscriptions, re-inscriptions and their modifications, as deleted, presented solely by accentuated blank surfaces pointing to the empty sites of some missing discourses.
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  • image title: Whiteout City: sites of spontaneous popular inscriptions in Belgrade deleted by white paint
  • photos: courtesy of Transformers Gallery, Urban Drift, Berlin

Natasa Teofilovic 

  • Natasa Teofilovic  is an architect and a visual artist from Pancevo, a city in Vojvodina largely gravitating towards Belgrade. She works in different media, from graphic representations of spatial settings to experimental video works and interactive performances. She employs specific media with a consciousness of the context, reflecting the very spatial, relational and political nature of the issue that she investigates.

  • link: www.cyberrex.org/NT 

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  • title: Unification Becomes Strength: Two Parliaments

  • The building of the Parliament in Sofia, Bulgaria, and the building of the Parliament in Belgrade, Yugoslavia were designed by the same architect. His name was Konstantin Jovanovic. There has been a polemic among the historians about his National identity. The Bulgarian historians claim that he was Bulgarian. The Serbian historians claim that he was Serb. In their opinion, for the building of the Parliament, as a symbol of the National identity, it is more important to define the architect by his National identity than the architectural style itself. Project Unification becomes Strength is the intermingling of the two facades merged into one. Project Unification becomes Strength questions the meaning of a Parliament building as a symbol of national identity, as well as the authors' right to have an identity of his own besides the National one.  www.dijafragma.com/konverzacija/1teofilovic.htm

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  • image title: Unification Becomes Strength, sequence of photo-collage process merging the Parliaments in Belgrade and Sofia in questioning the meaning of buildings as symbols of national identity

  • copyright&photo: Natasa Teofilovic
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  • title: Old Fair New Belgrade
  • This three-dimensional video simulation done in collaboration with Biljana Klaric shows dramatic changes, primarily in usage, that have happened to the architecture complex of The Old Fairs in Belgrade since it was built in 1937. Klaric and Teofilovic provide a picture of Belgrade's historically important events by employing documentary material to analyse the location chronologically through the prism of time and space. Documentary video consists of four periods. The first one (1937-1941) represents the years during which this was a great international fair, where, for instance, the first TV program from Philip`s pavilion was shown in 1939. During the second period (1941-1945) the place was transformed into a nazi camp. The third period (1945-1952) denotes the time of postwar enthusiasm. During these years, work brigades and The Agency for the Construction of New Belgrade - the "capitol" of the new communist regime, formed their offices here. The fourth period began in 1952 by giving the premises of Old Fairs to The Association of Plastic Art Artists of Serbia to be used as artistic studios. After this period there has been a persistant need for reconstruction of this space. The demands for the space, not only physically but also spiritually, can be analyzed through urban-architectonic projects done for the location (such as the international architectural competition for the National Opera House in the '70s). Metamorphosis is still in process; this complex, although situated in one of the most attractive locations in the city, is still disordered and without identity.
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  • image title: Beacon light at the Fair of Metamorphosis, frame from the 3D animation
  • copyright: Natasa Teofilovic & Biljana Klaric
Normal Group for Architecture [1998-2003]
  • Normal Group for Architecture is a collaborative office between Srdjan Jovanovic Weiss and Sabine von Fischer, based in New York and Zürich and founded in 1998. Normal Group designed and realized the offices of Thread Waxing Space and of Participant Inc., two non-profit art galleries in New York, as well as the winning project, the BLUR at the 2G Competition for the extension of the Mies van der Rohe Pavilion in Barcelona. Other awarded competition projects include "Hotel Normal," Belgrade, 1998; tkts, New York, 1999; "Kollektiv," School extension, Liechtenstein, 2000. The office has also been involved with cultural and  theoretical discourse both in the form of installations (Interactive Normalization iN.02 in Belgrade; 2002 Manifesta in Frankfurt; 2003 Biennial in Tirana) and writings (Harvard Guide to Shopping, City Fragments, as well as contributions to journals and magazines).
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  • title: Housing for Elderly Socialists 
  • We are faced with yet another paradox concerning the growth of our global population. How can we build for a gradually aging population in Belgrade? The statistics report that in some countries more than a third of the people are older than 50. This phenomenon, not entirely depending on the level of the country's development status (Italy and Serbia for example share the same percentage of the elderly population) will have to be addressed by architectural decisions in the future to come. Many questions and concerns are involved, however one seems to be the most pressing: now, when the cities are getting more and more populated by a younger professional generation, which by the statistics is in the minority to the elderly one, where can the elderly feel to be a continuing part of the population?...A new Florida? A new contingent of the exported pensioners from Japan to Brazil or other 'heaven' on earth? Or another generational ghetto-like situation for the elderly like the ageing Chelsea in New York? The Eyes on the City is an alternative proposal for an elderly housing complex aimed at Belgrade's baby-boomer generation that looks for ways to relocate and continue post-professional life in a place other than the place of professional life. A small city in a country just emerging from the recent catastrophe, now in line to join Europe, seems perfect for such attempt in creative ageing. By using ramps, a sequence of spaces that are sometimes open and sometimes closed, a sensitive connection to the top of the overlooking hill, the architecture preserves the top of the landscape together with the interior 'landscape' of the building. This project may be apt not only for the challenge of the '68 generation, but also for the promise of a bright future finally arriving to rescue society from the ever-deferred realization of the communist past. www.normalgroup.net/eyecity 
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  • image title: Day and Night in the Housing for the elderly in Valjevo, Serbia, animation sequence
  • copyright: Normal Group for Architecture [1998-2003]

Stealth Group

  • The Stealth Group are: Ana Dzokic, Marc Neelen, Milica Topalovic and Ivan Kucina. They have initiated and assembled several joint projects, beginning with Projekt X workshop which explored the edgy condition of Belgrade during its most difficult times. Stealth Group has initiated a flux between Belgrade and Rotterdam through simultaneous research at the Berlage Institute and the Faculty of Architecture at the University in Belgrade, through which the understanding of hometown has continued to evolve. Parts of their project 'The Wild City - Genetics of Uncontrolled Urban Processes' have been presented at the 'Mutations' exhibition (USE) in Bordeaux, Brussels, and Japan, at the Berlin Beta 2001 conference, V2_Wiretap program and as a proposal to the City Planning Department of Belgrade. The Wild City forms the content of the DataCloud 2.0 browser, currently developed by V2_Lab and ArchiNed. Stealth Group continues the research of wild, uncontrolled processes in the city structure, introducing them into the architectural field in order to build tools for dealing with spatial forms of constant social change. past links: www.classic.archined.nl/wildcity  

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  • title: The Genetics of the Wild City 

  • Occurring, growing without supervision or restraint, not domesticated cultivated or tamed; the Wild City is what could be called the urban paradigm of contemporary Belgrade. During a decade of instability, emergent processes replaced the city’s primary systems in domains of trade, housing production and public services. Where many saw just visual chaos, the city’s ability to continue functioning provoked us to look at it as a dynamic entity, a complex adaptive system. As an enclave cut off from global connections, it proved an ultimate laboratory in which ‘emergent’ behavior could be studied, to witness this new, mutated layer overtaking cities, land, structures and waters. Through the Wild City research, ways of observing complex phenomena and taxonomies to register their behavior are developed. It focuses on processes, the unfolding of events in time rather than on particular physical instances. The research points out how in nearly all of the processes, ranging for instance from street trade to city transport, conflict and negotiation between individual actors and institutions give rise to unusual relations and urban typologies. The overall comparison of behavior, among all the processes observed, brought an exciting discovery: a pattern of similarity in their sequences that can be called 'urban genes'.

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  • image title: Witness of Change, Interview with Pera Lozac, Belgrade / view of installation at Mutations exhibition (USE) - Bordeaux

  • photo: courtesy of the artists

Stevan Vukovic

  • Stevan Vukovic is a curator, writer and critic of contemporary art. He is  working on collaborative projects with artists, architects and social scientists, developing concepts for a theory of spatio-analysis as a method of interpreting libidinal circuits between the subjects and specific spatial settings which they appropriate. Born in 1968 in Belgrade, he studied philosophy and art history and received his BA in philosophy at the Philosophical Faculty in Belgrade. He pursued postgraduate studies at Jan van Eyck Akademie in Maastricht, Bauhaus Dessau, and the Amsterdam School of Cultural Analysis. He also won the "Lazar Trifunovic Award" for 'best art criticism' published in YU in 1998. link: www.remont.co.yu/stevanv.htm 
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  • title: Belgrade Paramilitary Project
  • Belgrade Paramilitary Project, done in collaboration with Paula Miklosevic, is an excerpt of wider research on social (spatial) segregations along the lines of dress codes, uses of language, comportment, and patterns of consumption. In the context of the Urban Fog Of Belgrade, it analyses the blurring of: 1. the general tradition of military practices to camoufler, blind, veil, or disguise an object in plain sight, in order to protect it by concealing; 2. the local histories of a decade of paramilitary troops parading in camouflage in the city-space, not to be concealed, but to spread fear; 3. the sub-cultural uses of camouflage gear to voice dissent against bourgeois notions of civic life, and fashion a kind of urban guerilla; 4. the local popular and media addiction to whatever comes to be spotted as fashion in clothing and self-styling, regardless of its context; 5. the readiness of the local culture to become unconsciously militarized to a great extent, and positioned in conflict to neighbors. The dress code in these images is mostly undiscernable, as well as its relation to the very space in which it is featured. It is as imprecisely articulated as the general social situation.
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  • Belgrade Paramilitary Project / Fashion on the Streets of Belgrade
  • photo: Paula Miklosevic

Srdjan Jovanovic Weiss

  • Srdjan Weiss was born 1967 in Subotica. Lived in Novi Sad until 1986, Belgrade until 1995 and since in New York City. He had worked within various architectural groups in Belgrade [Random7, Akcelerator] and in New York with Richard Gluckman, Robert Wilson and Jenny Holzer and with Rem Koolhaas. In 1998 he founded Normal Group for Architecture based in New York City after winning a competition for the Head Office of the Mies van der Rohe Foundation in Barcelona. He taught design studios, seminars and workshop at various universities in the US. His projects and essays are published in the international press and he is currently teaching research studios at the University of Pennsylvania.  www.normalgroup.net  

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  • title: Brief History of Turbo Architecture 
  • Turbo Architecture is a recently established term to classify buildings of a mutated style, a merge between medieval forms, [i.e. Byzantium] executed in imitating contemporary technological aesthetics [i.e. High-Tech]. It is also a way of describing at large architectural production during the crisis in Belgrade analogous to what ‘Turbo’ means in car industry, making the cars go faster and sell faster within an existing or used shell. Beyond this analogy Turbo Architecture is a direct urban expression of Turbo Folk, a highly popular genre in Serbian music of the 90.’ Its particularity was a free sampling of both traditional and contemporary sources resulting as a perpetuating mix of techno rhythms and traditional melodies. The makers of Turbo Folk used the isolation imposed on Serbia during the war in their benefit downloading and copying any music sources from any place possible, free from copyright laws that remained on the outer side of the isolation. Accordingly, during the war and the isolation of Serbia, thousands of hundreds of buildings and houses were built at a break-neck speed, even before the times of nominal reconstruction. Entire families of architectural forms of all scales from individual houses to large complexes are now forming a new popular identity of the city. A peculiar condition in the city that underwent a political crisis and yet was rapidly expanding at the same time is the focus of this work. www.thenao.net/turbo 
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  • Image title: Brief History of Turbo Architecture, Installation view
  • copyright: Srdjan Jovanovic Weiss
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  • cover photo: Srdjan Jovanovic Weiss

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